I. Factors Influencing the Land Occupation of Photovoltaic Projects
First of all, we must confirm that the installation of photovoltaic projects, fixed-type, flat single-axis, inclined single-axis, dual-axis, different installation methods, covers an area of â€‹â€‹very large differences.
Secondly, it must be made clear that the area of â€‹â€‹the PV includes the two parts of the â€œPlanar field areaâ€ and â€œSubstationâ€.
The area of â€‹â€‹the â€œsubstationâ€ is affected by the voltage level, 10kV, 35kV/66kV, 110kV, 220kV, and 330kV. Different voltage levels, the area occupied by the substation is certainly not the same. The following table is a rough figure of the footprint of substations with different voltage levels.
Taking the fixed installation method as an example, the floor space of the â€œphotovoltaic field areaâ€ is affected by four factors, as shown in the figure below.
1. The area of â€‹â€‹the "Pan-Plant Area" is affected by the "site conditions"
If the distribution is "concrete roof" and "color tile roof," the difference in floor space is very large. In general, the same amount of installed space, "concrete roof"> "color tile roof."
If it is a terrestrial power station, the land will be divided into three types: flat land, south slope, and north slope. The land area will be very different. When other conditions are the same, the same installation area covers a north slope>flat land>a south slope.
We cannot explain all the situations one by one. The following can only be explained by taking the example of â€œflat landâ€.
2. The area of â€‹â€‹the â€œPan-Pan Fieldâ€ area is affected by the â€œTransformation Efficiency of Photovoltaic Modulesâ€
The â€œphotovoltaic module conversion efficiencyâ€ is increased by 1%, and the area of â€‹â€‹the â€œphotovoltaic array fieldâ€ will be reduced by approximately 5-9%.
3. The area of â€‹â€‹the â€œPan-Plant Field Zoneâ€ is affected by the â€œPV array tilt angleâ€
When other conditions are the same, the â€œPV array tilt angleâ€ is reduced by 1Â°, and the area of â€‹â€‹the â€œPV field areaâ€ is reduced by approximately 0.5% to 2%.
4. The area of â€‹â€‹the "Panfang field area" is affected by "latitude"
"Latitude" affects mainly "shadow magnification." "Shadow magnification" is the ratio of the length of the shadow formed by the shield to its height. In general, when designing, the shadow magnification at 9:00 and 15:00 when the winter solstice is true is mainly considered.
In the northern high latitudes of Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and other provinces, the latitude is above 40Â° and the shadow magnification is >3. However, in Guangdong, Guangxi and other latitudes below 25Â°, the shadow magnification is within 1.5. Therefore, in the northern region, the front-rear array spacing will reach more than 6m; while in some places in the south, a 2m maintenance channel will be enough for the front and rear array spacing.
Therefore, the â€œlatitudeâ€ increases by 5Â°, and the area of â€‹â€‹the â€œPlanar Field Areaâ€ will increase by approximately 10% to 30%.
Second, the estimated area
On December 2, 2015, the Ministry of Land and Resources issued a Notice on Controlling Land Use for Photovoltaic Power Station Project Land (Regulation No.  No. 11), and the annexes cover the area under various conditions.
The first step is to determine how to install the PV array
Fixed, flat single-axis, inclined single-axis, dual-axis tracking, to choose a different table;
The second step, determine the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic modules
The third step is to determine the terrain condition factor.
Multiply the value obtained from the query by the corresponding terrain condition factor to estimate the footprint of a project.
The table below shows the floor area of â€‹â€‹the array below the horizontal plane with different installation methods and different conversion efficiencies.
1. The reference area in the table is the area of â€‹â€‹the photovoltaic nucleus area and does not include the booster station and living area.
2. Estimation under different terrains
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